Aqueducts: The Answer to Rome's Water Problems

Rome’s first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; prior to that, citizens living at higher elevations had to depend on natural streams for their water. When aqueducts or springs weren’t accessible, people dwelling at raised elevations turned to water pulled from underground or rainwater, which was made possible by wells and cisterns. From the beginning of the sixteenth century, water was routed to Pincian Hill via the subterranean channel of Acqua Vergine.Aqueducts: Answer Rome's Water Problems 02689247357994.jpg As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. The manholes made it more straightforward to maintain the channel, but it was also achievable to use buckets to pull water from the aqueduct, as we observed with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he bought the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he passed away. Reportedly, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t sufficient to meet his needs. Through an opening to the aqueduct that ran under his property, he was in a position to reach his water wants.Large Outdoor Fountains Come From? 60782176803824.jpg

Where did Large Outdoor Fountains Come From?

A water fountain is an architectural piece that pours water into a basin or jets it high into the air in order to supply drinking water, as well as for decorative purposes.

From the beginning, outdoor fountains were soley there to serve as functional elements. Water fountains were connected to a spring or aqueduct to provide drinkable water as well as bathing water for cities, townships and villages. Used until the nineteenth century, in order for fountains to flow or shoot up into the air, their source of water such as reservoirs or aqueducts, had to be higher than the water fountain in order to benefit from the power of gravity. Acting as an element of decoration and celebration, fountains also supplied clean, fresh drinking water. Roman fountains usually depicted images of animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks. Muslims and Moorish landscaping designers of the Middle Ages included fountains to re-create smaller versions of the gardens of paradise. Fountains enjoyed a considerable role in the Gardens of Versailles, all part of French King Louis XIV’s desire to exercise his power over nature. The Romans of the 17th and 18th centuries created baroque decorative fountains to exalt the Popes who commissioned them as well as to mark the spot where the restored Roman aqueducts entered the city.

Since indoor plumbing became the standard of the day for fresh, drinking water, by the end of the 19th century urban fountains were no longer needed for this purpose and they became purely decorative. Amazing water effects and recycled water were made possible by replacing the force of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Modern-day fountains serve mostly as decoration for open spaces, to honor individuals or events, and enhance entertainment and recreational activities.

How Your Home or Office Profit from an Indoor Wall Water Feature

Your indoor living space can benefit from an indoor wall fountain because it beautifies your home and also gives it a contemporary feel. These kinds of fountains lower noise pollution in your home or company, thereby allowing your family and clients to have a stress-fee and tranquil environment. Your staff and clients alike will take notice and complement your new interior wall water feature. In order to get a positive response from your loudest critic and impress all those around, install an interior water feature to get the job done.

While sitting below your wall fountain you can delight in the tranquility it provides after a long day's work and enjoy watching your favorite sporting event. All those near an indoor fountain will benefit from it because its sounds emit negative ions, remove dust and pollen from the air, and also lend to a calming environment.

Sculpture As a Staple of Classic Art in Historic Greece

Archaic Greeks were renowned for creating the first freestanding statuary; up till then, most carvings were constructed out of walls and pillars as reliefs. For the most part the statues, or kouros figures, were of adolescent and attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi were seen by the Greeks to represent beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising stiffness to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, sinewy, and unclothed. Around 650 BC, life-size models of the kouroi began to be seen. Throughout the Archaic time, a great time of changes, the Greeks were developing new types of government, expressions of art, and a greater comprehension of people and cultures outside Greece. Similar to other moments of historical unrest, disputes were common, and there were struggles between city-states like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos.