The Outcome of the Norman Conquest on Anglo-Saxon Garden Design

The Anglo-Saxon way of life was drastically changed by the appearance of the Normans in the later eleventh century. The ability of the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons' in architecture and farming at the time of the conquest. But before concentrating on home-life or having the occasion to contemplate domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire population. Most often built upon windy peaks, castles were basic structures that allowed their occupants to devote time and space to offensive and defensive strategies, while monasteries were rambling stone buildings frequently placed in only the most fecund, extensive valleys. The barren fortresses did not provide for the quiet avocation of horticulture.Outcome Norman Conquest Anglo-Saxon Garden Design 8134525777177502251.jpg Berkeley Castle, perhaps the most unspoiled style of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture, still exists today. The keep is said to date from William the Conqueror's time. A massive terrace serves as a deterrent to intruders who would try to mine the walls of the building. On one of these terraces sits a charming bowling green: it's covered in grass and flanked by an old yew hedge that is formed into the shape of rough ramparts.

The Minoan Civilization: Garden Fountains

Minoan Civilization: Garden Fountains 4428878753.jpg On the Greek island of Crete, digs have discovered channels of numerous kinds. They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. Rock and clay were the ingredients of choice for these channels. Terracotta was utilized for channels and water pipes, both rectangle-shaped and circular. There are a couple of illustrations of Minoan clay pipes, those with a shortened cone shape and a U-shape which have not been caught in any civilization since. Terracotta water lines were put down under the flooring at Knossos Palace and utilized to distribute water. Along with disbursing water, the terracotta water pipes of the Minoans were also used to amass water and store it. These terracotta pipes were essential to perform: Underground Water Transportation: This undetectable system for water movement could possibly have been chosen to furnish water to certain individuals or functions. Quality Water Transportation: Many historians think that these pipelines were used to develop a separate distribution technique for the palace.

The First Modern Wall Fountains

Himself a learned man, Pope Nicholas V headed the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 till 1455 and was responsible for the translation of scores of ancient documents from their original Greek into Latin. He undertook the embellishment of Rome to make it into the model capital of the Christian world.First Modern Wall Fountains 3720532734784.jpg Starting in 1453, the ruined ancient Roman aqueduct known as the Aqua Vergine which had brought fresh drinking water into the city from eight miles away, underwent reconstruction at the bidding of the Pope. Building a mostra, a grandiose celebratory fountain built by ancient Romans to memorialize the arrival point of an aqueduct, was a tradition revived by Nicholas V. The present-day site of the Trevi Fountain was formerly occupied by a wall fountain commissioned by the Pope and built by the architect Leon Battista Alberti. Adjustments and extensions, included in the repaired aqueduct, eventually provided the Trevi Fountain and the well-known baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and Piazza Navona with the necessary water supply.