Original Water Delivery Techniques in The City Of Rome

Rome’s very first raised aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; prior to that, people living at higher elevations had to depend on natural creeks for their water.Original Water Delivery Techniques City Rome 97460026363702.jpg Over this period, there were only 2 other techniques capable of delivering water to high areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which gathered rainwater. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a brand new system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean segments to generate water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made attainable by pozzi, or manholes, that were positioned along its length when it was 1st constructed. Whilst these manholes were created to make it simpler and easier to sustain the aqueduct, it was also feasible to use buckets to extract water from the channel, which was employed by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he invested in the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. It seems that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t good enough to fulfill his needs. To give himself with a much more practical way to obtain water, he had one of the manholes opened, providing him access to the aqueduct below his residence.

Where did Landscape Fountains Begin?

The dramatic or decorative effect of a fountain is just one of the purposes it fulfills, in addition to providing drinking water and adding a decorative touch to your property.

From the onset, outdoor fountains were soley there to serve as functional elements. Residents of urban areas, townships and small towns utilized them as a source of drinking water and a place to wash up, which meant that fountains had to be connected to nearby aqueduct or spring. Until the late nineteenth, century most water fountains functioned using the force of gravity to allow water to flow or jet into the air, therefore, they needed a supply of water such as a reservoir or aqueduct located higher than the fountain. Fountains were an optimal source of water, and also served to decorate living areas and memorialize the designer. Bronze or stone masks of animals and heroes were commonly seen on Roman fountains. During the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden planners included fountains to create smaller depictions of the gardens of paradise. The fountains found in the Gardens of Versailles were meant to show the power over nature held by King Louis XIV of France. Seventeen and 18 century Popes sought to exalt their positions by including decorative baroque-style fountains at the point where restored Roman aqueducts arrived into the city.Landscape Fountains Begin? 29031929584.jpg

The end of the 19th century saw the increase in usage of indoor plumbing to supply drinking water, so urban fountains were relegated to purely decorative elements. Impressive water effects and recycled water were made possible by switching the force of gravity with mechanical pumps.

These days, fountains adorn public spaces and are used to pay tribute to individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

The Defining Characteristics of Ancient Greek Statues

The Archaic Greeks developed the 1st freestanding statuary, an amazing achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars.Defining Characteristics Ancient Greek Statues 90816834394.jpg Kouros figures, statues of adolescent, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks, made up the bulk of the sculptures. The kouroi were seen by the Greeks to represent beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising stiffness to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, sinewy, and naked. Around 650 BC, life-sized versions of the kouroi began to be seen. A massive time of modification for the Greeks, the Archaic period introduced about newer forms of government, expressions of artwork, and a higher comprehension of people and customs outside of Greece. The Arcadian conflicts, the Spartan penetration of Samos, and other wars between city-states are good examples of the sorts of battles that occurred frequently, which is consistent with other times of historical transformation.